Glossary

2nd generation biofuels
All renewable fuels obtained from a lignocellulose source (wood, straw, etc.). They must be distinguished from 1st generation biofuels, which come from food crops (grain, sugar, etc.).
Agrichemistry
Chemical industry using products of agricultural origins as a resource. (Not to be confused with agrochemistry: chemical industry dedicated to agricultural products).
BIOCORE
The European Biocore project (BIOCOmmodity REfinery), coordinated by INRA, aims to design and analyse the industrial feasibility of biorefineries to convert agricultural and forest residuals into renewable biomolecules including 2nd generation biofuels.
Biomass
This is all organic matter of plant or animal origin present in a given natural environment.
Biorefinery
This is an industrial unit that separates the components of biomass without deteriorating them, like an oil refinery does with crude oil.
Biosourced products
These products are made from animal or plant biomass.
Cellulose
Cellulose is a polymer of beta-D-glucose. It is mainly used as a raw material for paper manufacturing and non-food related glucose syrup production for further hydrolysis.
Coproducts
A coproduct is a material deliberately and inevitably created by the same production technology as the principal product and at the same time.
Dimer
Molecule that comes from combining two identical molecules.
Engineering
All the studies involved in the design and realization of an industrial project.
Enzymatic hydrolisis
Decomposition of vegetal matter by enzymatic action.
Formalin/Formaldehyde
The official name for formalin in international nomenclature is Methanal. It is considered carcinogenic today and it should be gradually withdrawn from the market.
Furfural
Furfural is an industrial chemical compound, also being a by-product of various secondary agricultural products like corn, oat brans, wheat or sawdust.
Green chemistry
Green chemistry is a generic term covering chemistry used in sustainable development approach. It is based on 12 principles aimed at reducing or eliminating dangerous and/or toxic substances .
Lignin
Regular phenolic polymer, mainly responsible for plants structure ans forming part of the wall of vegetable cells (wood, straw, etc.) adding to its hardness and impermeability.
Monomer
Simple chemical compound, as opposed to a polymer.
Organosolv lignin
Lignin extracted by means of organic solvents.
Petrochemistry
Chemistry of petroleum-based products.
Phenol
It is extracted from coal tar or produced by oxidizing cumene (molecule produced from petroleum). Phenol is mainly used for industrial thermosetting resins.
Plant chemistry
Plant chemistry is one of the 12 principles of green chemistry. It is based on using plant resources instead of fossil ones to make chemical products.
Polymer
Generally organic or semi-organic substance characterized by the repetition of several monomers.
REACH
The European chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances), which came into force on June,1st, 2007, aims to provide the public with greater safety regarding chemical substances.
Seveso
The so-called "Seveso directive" or "96/82/CE directive" is a European standard that requires European Union members states to identify industrial sites where there is a risk of major accident.
SICLAE
SICLAE is a group of farm cooperatives from the Champagne-Ardenne region (France).
White biotechnologies
Cellulose is a polymer of beta-D-glucose. It is mainly used as a raw material for paper manufacturing and non-food related glucose syrup production for further hydrolysis.